MDL-21695 deleting obsolete upload users helps
[moodle.git] / lang / en / help / install.html
15bb726f 1<h1>Installing Moodle</h1>
f79310ed 2<h2>Don't panic! <img src="" alt="" /></h2>
8946d964 3<div class="indent">
15bb726f 4 <p>This guide explains how to install Moodle for the first time. For some of these steps it goes into a lot of detail to try and cover the majority of possible
5 web server setups, so this document may look long and complicated. Don't panic, once you know how to do it you can install Moodle in minutes!</p>
8946d964 6 <p>If you have problems please read this document carefully &ndash; most common issues are answered in here.
15bb726f 7 If you still have trouble, you can seek help from
5dbae356 8 <a href="">Moodle Help</a></p>
9 <p>Another option is to contact a <a href="">web hosting company</a>
15bb726f 10 who can completely maintain Moodle for you, so that you can ignore all this and get straight into educating!
8946d964 12
15bb726f 13 <p>Sections in this document:</p>
14 <ol>
15 <li><a href="#requirements">Requirements</a></li>
16 <li><a href="#downloading">Download and copy files into place</a> </li>
17 <li><a href="#site">Site structure</a></li>
18 <li><a href="#installer">Run the installer script to create config.php</a> <ul>
19 <li><a href="#webserver">Check web server settings</a></li>
20 <li><a href="#database">Creating a database</a></li>
21 <li><a href="#data">Creating a data directory</a></li>
22 </ul>
23 </li>
24 <li><a href="#admin">Go to the admin page to continue configuration</a></li>
25 <li><a href="#cron">Set up cron</a></li>
26 <li><a href="#course">Create a new course</a></li>
27 </ol>
28 <p>&nbsp;</p>
8946d964 29</div>
5dbae356 31<h3 class="sectionheading" id="requirements">1. Requirements</h3>
8946d964 32<div class="indent">
15bb726f 33 <p>Moodle is primarily developed in Linux using Apache, MySQL and PHP (also
34 sometimes known as the LAMP platform), but is also regularly tested with PostgreSQL
35 and on Windows XP, Mac OS X and Netware 6 operating systems</p>
36 <p>The requirements for Moodle are as follows:</p>
37 <ol>
5dbae356 38 <li>Web server software. Most people use <a href="" >Apache</a>,
15bb726f 39 but Moodle should work fine under any web server that supports PHP, such
40 as IIS on Windows platforms.</li>
5dbae356 41 <li><a href="">PHP</a> scripting language (version 4.1.0
15bb726f 42 or later). PHP 5 is supported as of Moodle 1.4. </li>
5dbae356 43 <li>a working database server: <a href="">MySQL</a>
44 or <a href="">PostgreSQL</a> are
15bb726f 45 completely supported and recommended for use with Moodle. </li>
46 </ol>
47 <p>Most web hosts support all of this by default. If you are signed up with
48 one of the few webhosts that does not support these features ask them why,
49 and consider taking your business elsewhere.</p>
50 <p>If you want to run Moodle on your own computer and all this looks a bit daunting,
bfb2734e 51 then please take a look at <a href="">the administrator documentation</a>.</p>
15bb726f 52 <p>&nbsp;</p>
8946d964 53</div>
5dbae356 55<h3 class="sectionheading" id="downloading">2. Download and copy files into place </h3>
8946d964 56<div class="indent">
15bb726f 57 <p>There are two ways to get Moodle, as a compressed package and via CVS. These
5dbae356 58 are explained in detail on the download page: <a href=""></a></p>
15bb726f 59 <p>After downloading and unpacking the archive, or checking out the files via
60 CVS, you will be left with a directory called &quot;moodle&quot;, containing
61 a number of files and folders.</p>
62 <p>You can either place the whole folder in your web server documents directory,
63 in which case the site will be located at <b></b>,
64 or you can copy all the contents straight into the main web server documents
65 directory, in which case the site will be simply <b></b>.</p>
66 <p>If you are downloading Moodle to your local computer and then uploading it to your web site, it is usually better to upload the whole archive as one file, and then do the unpacking on the server. Even web hosting interfaces like Cpanel allow you to uncompress archives in the &quot;File Manager&quot;. </p>
8946d964 67</div>
15bb726f 68<p>&nbsp;</p>
8946d964 69
5dbae356 70<h3 class="sectionheading" id="site">3. Site structure</h3>
8946d964 71<div class="indent">
15bb726f 72 <p>You can safely skip this section, but here is a quick summary of the contents of the Moodle folder, to help get
73 you oriented:</p>
8946d964 74 <div class="indent">
75 <table class="indent"><tr>
5dbae356 76 <td valign="top">config.php</td>
15bb726f 77 <td valign="top">-</td>
78 <td valign="top">
79 contains basic settings. This file does not come with Moodle - you will create it. </td>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <td valign="top">install.php</td>
83 <td valign="top">-</td>
84 <td valign="top">the script you will run to create config.php </td>
85 </tr>
86 <tr><td valign="top">version.php</td>
87 <td valign="top">-</td>
88 <td valign="top">
89 defines the current version of Moodle code
90 </td></tr>
91 <tr><td valign="top">index.php</td>
92 <td valign="top">-</td>
93 <td valign="top">
94 the front page of the site
95 </td></tr></table>
96 <ul>
97 <li>admin/ - code to administrate the whole server </li>
98 <li>auth/ - plugin modules to authenticate users </li>
99 <li>blocks/ - plugin modules for the little side blocks on many pages</li>
100 <li>calendar/ - all the code for managing and displaying calendars</li>
101 <li>course/ - code to display and manage courses </li>
102 <li>doc/ - help documentation for Moodle (eg this page)</li>
103 <li>files/ - code to display and manage uploaded files</li>
104 <li>lang/ - texts in different languages, one directory per language </li>
105 <li>lib/ - libraries of core Moodle code </li>
106 <li>login/ - code to handle login and account creation </li>
107 <li>mod/ - all the main Moodle course modules are in here </li>
108 <li>pix/ - generic site graphics</li>
109 <li>theme/ - theme packs/skins to change the look of the site.</li>
110 <li>user/ - code to display and manage users</li>
111 </ul>
112 <p>&nbsp;</p>
8946d964 113 </div>
5dbae356 116<h3 class="sectionheading" id="installer">4. Run the Installer script to create config.php </h3>
8946d964 117<div class="indent">
15bb726f 118 <p>To run the installer script (install.php), just try to access your Moodle main URL using a web browser, or access <strong>http://yourserver/install.php</strong> directly. </p>
119 <p>(The Installer will try to set a session cookie. If you get a popup warning in your browser make sure you accept that cookie!) </p>
120 <p>Moodle will detect that configuration is necessary and will lead you through some screens to help you create a new configuration file called <strong>config.php. </strong>At the end of the process Moodle will try and write the file into the right location, otherwise you can press a button to download it from the installer and then upload config.php into the main Moodle directory on the server. </p>
121 <p>Along the way the installer will test your server environment and give you suggestions about how to fix any problems. For most common issues these suggestions should be sufficient, but if you get stuck, look below for more information about some of common things that might be holding you up. <br />
122 </p>
15bb726f 123
8946d964 124
125<h4 class="sectionheading" id="webserver">4.1 General web server settings </h4>
126 <div class="indent">
15bb726f 127 <p>Firstly, make sure that your web server is set up to use index.php as a default
128 page (perhaps in addition to index.html, default.htm and so on).</p>
129 <p>In Apache, this is done using a DirectoryIndex parameter in your httpd.conf
130 file. Mine usually looks like this:</p>
8946d964 131
15bb726f 132 <pre><strong>DirectoryIndex</strong> index.php index.html index.htm </pre>
8946d964 133
15bb726f 134 <p>Just make sure index.php is in the list (and preferably towards the start
135 of the list, for efficiency).</p>
136 <p>Secondly, <b>if you are using Apache 2</b>, then you should turn on the <i>AcceptPathInfo</i>
137 variable, which allows scripts to be passed arguments like http://server/file.php/arg1/arg2.
138 This is essential to allow relative links between your resources, and also
139 provides a performance boost for people using your Moodle web site. You can
140 turn this on by adding these lines to your httpd.conf file.</p>
8946d964 141
15bb726f 142 <pre><strong>AcceptPathInfo</strong> on </pre>
8946d964 143
15bb726f 144 <p>Thirdly, Moodle requires a number of PHP settings to be active for it to
145 work. <b>On most servers these will already be the default settings.</b>
146 However, some PHP servers (and some of the more recent PHP versions) may
147 have things set differently. These are defined in PHP's configuration
148 file (usually called php.ini):</p>
8946d964 149
15bb726f 150 <pre>magic_quotes_gpc = 1 (preferred but not necessary)
151magic_quotes_runtime = 0 (necessary)
152file_uploads = 1
153session.auto_start = 0
8946d964 154session.bug_compat_warn = 0</pre>
15bb726f 156 <p>If you don't have access to httpd.conf or php.ini on your server, or you
157 have Moodle on a server with other applications that require different settings,
158 then don't worry, you can often still OVERRIDE the default settings.
159 </p>
160 <p>To do this, you need to create a file called <b>.htaccess</b> in Moodle's
161 main directory that contains lines like the following.
162 This only works on Apache servers and only when Overrides have been allowed in the main configuration. </p>
8946d964 163
15bb726f 164 <pre>
165DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm
7e76b9e8 167&lt;IfDefine APACHE2&gt;
15bb726f 168 <b>AcceptPathInfo</b> on
7e76b9e8 169&lt;/IfDefine&gt;
15bb726f 170
171php_flag magic_quotes_gpc 1
172php_flag magic_quotes_runtime 0
173php_flag file_uploads 1
174php_flag session.auto_start 0
8946d964 175php_flag session.bug_compat_warn 0
15bb726f 178 <p>You can also do things like define the maximum size for uploaded files:
8946d964 181
15bb726f 182 <pre>
183LimitRequestBody 0
184php_value upload_max_filesize 2M
8946d964 185php_value post_max_size 2M</pre>
15bb726f 187 <p>The easiest thing to do is just copy the sample file from <strong>lib/htaccess</strong> and edit it to suit your needs. It contains further instructions. For
188 example, in a Unix shell:
189 </p>
8946d964 190
15bb726f 191 <pre>cp lib/htaccess .htaccess</pre>
8946d964 192
193 </div>
15bb726f 194<p>&nbsp;</p>
15bb726f 195
8946d964 196<h4 class="sectionheading" id="database">4.2 Creating a database</h4>
198 <div class="indent">
15bb726f 199 <p>You need to create an empty database (eg "<em>moodle</em>") in your database system
200 along with a special user (eg "moodleuser") that has access to that database
201 (and that database only). You could use the "root" user if you wanted to for a test server, but
202 this is not recommended for a production system: if hackers manage to discover
203 the password then your whole database system would be at risk, rather than
204 just one database. </p>
205 <p>If you are using a webhost, they will probably have a control panel web interface for you to create your database. </p>
206 <p>The <strong>Cpanel</strong> system is one of the most popular of these. To create a database in Cpanel, </p>
207 <ol>
208 <li>Click on the &quot;<strong>MySQL Databases</strong>&quot; icon.</li>
209 <li>Type &quot;moodle&quot; in the database field and click &quot;<strong>Add Database</strong>&quot;.</li>
210 <li> Type a username and password (not one you use elsewhere) in the respective fields and click &quot;<strong>Add User</strong>&quot;.</li>
211 <li> Now use the &quot;<strong>Add User to Database</strong>&quot; button to give this new user account &quot;<strong>ALL</strong>&quot; rights to the new database.</li>
212 <li>Note that the username and database names may be prefixed by your Cpanel account name. When entering this information into the Moodle installer - use the full names.</li>
213 </ol>
214 <p>If you have access to Unix command lines then you can do the same sort of thing by typing commands. </p>
215 <p>Here are some example Unix command lines for MySQL: </p>
216 <pre>
8946d964 217# mysql -u root -p
7e76b9e8 218&gt; CREATE DATABASE moodle;
8946d964 220 TO moodleuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword';
7e76b9e8 221&gt; quit
8946d964 222# mysqladmin -p reload</pre>
15bb726f 224 <p>And some example command lines for PostgreSQL: </p>
225 <pre>
8946d964 226# su - postgres
7e76b9e8 227&gt; psql -c "create user moodleuser createdb;" template1
228&gt; psql -c "create database moodle;" -U moodleuser template1
229&gt; psql -c "alter user moodleuser nocreatedb;" template1</pre>
8946d964 230 </div>
15bb726f 231 <p>&nbsp;</p>
8946d964 233<h4 class="sectionheading" id="data">4.3 Creating a data directory </h4>
15bb726f 234
8946d964 235 <div class="indent">
15bb726f 236 <p>Moodle will also need some space on your server's hard disk to store uploaded files, such as course documents and user pictures. </p>
237 <p>The Moodle installer tries hard to create this directory for you but if it fails then you will have to create a directory for this purpose manually. </p>
238 <p>For security, it's best that this directory is NOT accessible directly via the web. The easiest way to do this is to simply locate it OUTSIDE the web directory, but if you must have it in the web directory then protect it by creating a file in the data directory called .htaccess, containing this line: </p>
8946d964 239
d389b128 240 <pre>deny from all<br />AllowOverride None</pre>
8946d964 241
15bb726f 242 <p>To make sure that Moodle can save uploaded files in this directory, check that the web server software (eg Apache) has permission to read, write and execute in this directory. </p>
243 <p>On Unix machines, this means setting the owner of the directory to be something like &quot;nobody&quot; or &quot;apache&quot;, and then giving that user read, write and execute permissions.</p>
244 <p>On Cpanel systems you can use the &quot;File Manager&quot; to find the folder, click on it, then choose &quot;Change Permissions&quot;. On many shared hosting servers, you will probably need to restrict all file access to your "group" (to prevent other webhost customers from looking at or changing your files), but provide full read/write access to everyone else (which will allow the web server to access your files). </p>
245 <p>Speak to your server administrator if you are having trouble setting this up securely. In particular some sites that use a PHP feature known as &quot;Safe Mode&quot; may <em>require</em> the administrator to create this directory properly for you. </p>
8946d964 246 </div>
15bb726f 247
8946d964 248</div>
15bb726f 249
5dbae356 251<h3 class="sectionheading" id="admin">5. Go to the admin page to continue configuration </h3>
8946d964 252<div class="indent">
15bb726f 253 <p>Once the basic <strong>config.php</strong> has been correctly created in the previous step, trying to access the front page of your site will take you the &quot;admin&quot; page for the rest of the configuration.</p>
254 <p>The first time you access this admin page, you will be presented with
255 a GPL &quot;shrinkwrap&quot; agreement with which you <strong>must</strong> agree before you
256 can continue with the setup.</p>
257 <p>Now Moodle will start setting up your database and creating tables to store
258 data. Firstly, the main database tables are created. You should see a number
259 of SQL statements followed by status messages (in green or red) that look
260 like this:</p>
8946d964 261 <div class="indent">
15bb726f 262 <p>CREATE TABLE course ( id int(10) unsigned NOT NULL auto_increment, category
263 int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', password varchar(50) NOT NULL default
264 '', fullname varchar(254) NOT NULL default '', shortname varchar(15) NOT
265 NULL default '', summary text NOT NULL, format tinyint(4) NOT NULL default
266 '1', teacher varchar(100) NOT NULL default 'Teacher', startdate int(10)
267 unsigned NOT NULL default '0', enddate int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default
268 '0', timemodified int(10) unsigned NOT NULL default '0', PRIMARY KEY (id))
269 TYPE=MyISAM</p>
5dbae356 270 <p class="success">SUCCESS</p>
8946d964 271 </div>
5dbae356 272 <p>...and so on, followed by: <span class="success">Main databases set up
273 successfully.</span> </p>
8946d964 274
275 <p class="style3 indent">If you don't see these, then there must have been some problem with the database
15bb726f 276 or the configuration settings you defined in config.php. Check that PHP isn't
277 in a restricted "Safe Mode" (commercial web hosts sometimes have safe mode
278 turned on). You can check PHP variables by creating a little file containing <strong>&lt;?php phpinfo() ?&gt;</strong> and looking at it through a browser. Check all these and
279 try this page again.</p>
8946d964 280
15bb726f 281 <p>Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the &quot;Continue&quot;
282 link.</p>
283 <p>You should now see a form where you can define more configuration variables
284 for your installation, such as the default language, SMTP hosts and so on.
285 Don't worry too much about getting everything right just now - you can always
286 come back and edit these later on using the admin interface. The defaults are designed to be useful and secure for most sites. Scroll down to
287 the bottom and click &quot;Save changes&quot;.</p>
8946d964 288
289 <p class="style3 indent">If (and only if) you find yourself getting stuck on this page, unable to
15bb726f 290 continue, then your server probably has what I call the "buggy referrer" problem.
291 This is easy to fix: just turn off the &quot;secureforms&quot; setting, then
292 try to continue again.</p>
8946d964 293
5dbae356 294 <p>Next you will see more pages that print lots of status messages as they set up all the tables required by the various Moodle module. As before, they should all be <span style="color:#006600">green</span>.</p>
15bb726f 295 <p>Scroll down the very bottom of the page and press the &quot;Continue&quot; link.</p>
296 <p>The next page is a form where you can define parameters for your Moodle site
297 and the front page, such as the name, format, description and so on. Fill
298 this out (you can always come back and change these later) and then press
299 &quot;Save changes&quot;.</p>
300 <p>Finally, you will then be asked to create a top-level administration user
301 for future access to the admin pages. Fill out the details with your own name,
302 email etc and then click &quot;Save changes&quot;. Not all the fields are
303 required, but if you miss any important fields you'll be re-prompted for them.
304 </p>
8946d964 305 <div class="indent">
307 <p class="indent-big"><strong>Make sure you remember the username and password you chose
15bb726f 308 for the administration user account, as they will be necessary to
309 access the administration page in future.</strong></p>
8946d964 310
15bb726f 311 <p class="style3">(If for any reason your install is interrupted, or there is a system error
312 of some kind that prevents you from logging in using the admin account, you
313 can usually log in using the default username of &quot;<strong>admin</strong>&quot;,
314 with password &quot;<strong>admin</strong>&quot;.)</p>
8946d964 315 </div>
15bb726f 316 <p>Once successful, you will be returned to the home page of your new site! Note the
317 administration links that appear down the left hand side of the page (these
318 items also appear on a separate Admin page) - these items are only visible
319 to you because you are logged in as the admin user. All your further administration
320 of Moodle can now be done using this menu, such as:</p>
321 <ul>
322 <li>creating and deleting courses</li>
323 <li>creating and editing user accounts</li>
324 <li>administering teacher accounts</li>
325 <li>changing site-wide settings like themes etc</li>
326 </ul>
327 <p>But you are not done installing yet! There is one very important thing still to do (see the next section on cron). </p>
8946d964 328</div>
15bb726f 329<p>&nbsp;</p>
f79310ed 330
8946d964 331<h3 class="sectionheading" id="cron">6. Set up cron &ndash; IMPORTANT! </h3>
332<div class="indent">
15bb726f 333 <p>Some of Moodle's modules require continual checks to perform tasks. For example,
334 Moodle needs to check the discussion forums so it can mail out copies of posts
335 to people who have subscribed.</p>
336 <p>The script that does all this is located in the admin directory, and is called
337 cron.php. However, it can not run itself, so you need to set up a mechanism
338 where this script is run regularly (eg every five or ten minutes). This provides
339 a &quot;heartbeat&quot; so that the script can perform functions at periods
340 defined by each module. This kind of regular mechanism is known as a <strong>cron service</strong>. </p>
341 <p>Note that the machine performing the cron <b>does not need to be the same
342 machine that is running Moodle</b>. For example, if you have a limited web
343 hosting service that does not have a cron service, then you can might choose to run
344 cron on another server or on your home computer. All that matters is that
345 the cron.php file is called regularly. </p>
346 <p>The load of this script is not very high, so 5 minutes is usually reasonable,
347 but if you're worried about it you can reduce the time period to something
348 like 15 minutes or even 30 minutes. It's best not to make the time period
349 too long, as delaying mail-outs can slow down activity within the course.</p>
350 <p>First, test that the script works by running it directly from your browser:</p>
8946d964 351
15bb726f 352 <pre></pre>
8946d964 353
15bb726f 354 <p>Now, you need to set up some of way of running the script automatically and
355 regularly.</p>
f79310ed 356
357 <h4>On Windows systems</h4>
8946d964 358
359 <p class="indent">The simplest way is to use this little package <a href="" title="Click to download this package (150k)"><strong></strong></a> which makes this whole thing very easy by installing a small Windows service. Run it and forget about it!</p>
361 <h4>On web hosting services</h4>
363 <p class="indent"> Your web-based control panel may have a web page that allows you to set up this cron process. For example, on Cpanel system, look for a button called &quot;Cron jobs&quot;. In there you can put the same sort of Unix commands as listed below. </p>
f79310ed 365
15bb726f 366 <h4> Using the command line on Unix </h4>
8946d964 367 <div class="indent">
15bb726f 368 <p>There are different command line programs you can use to call the page from the command line. Not all of them may be available on a given server.</p>
369 <p>For example, you can use a Unix utility like 'wget':</p>
8946d964 370
15bb726f 371 <pre>wget -q -O /dev/null</pre>
8946d964 372
15bb726f 373 <p>Note in this example that the output is thrown away (to /dev/null).</p>
374 <p>The same thing using lynx:</p>
8946d964 375
15bb726f 376 <pre>lynx -dump &gt; /dev/null</pre>
8946d964 377
15bb726f 378 <p>Alternatively you could use a standalone version of PHP, compiled to be run
379 on the command line. The advantage with doing this is that your web server
380 logs aren't filled with constant requests to cron.php. The disadvantage is
381 that you need to have access to a command-line version of php.</p>
15bb726f 382
8946d964 383 <pre>/opt/bin/php /web/moodle/admin/cron.php</pre>
385 </div>
f79310ed 386
15bb726f 387 <h4>Using the crontab program on Unix </h4>
8946d964 388 <div class="indent">
15bb726f 389 <p> All that Cpanel does is provide a web interface to a Unix utility known as crontab. If you have a command line, you can set up crontab yourself using the command:</p>
8946d964 390
15bb726f 391 <pre>crontab -e</pre>
8946d964 392
15bb726f 393 <p>and then adding one of the above commands like:</p>
8946d964 394
15bb726f 395 <pre>*/5 * * * * wget -q -O /dev/null</pre>
8946d964 396
15bb726f 397 <p>Usually, the "crontab" command will put you into the 'vi' editor. You enter
398 "insert mode" by pressing "i", then type in the line as above, then exit insert mode by
399 pressing ESC. You save and exit by typing ":wq", or quit without saving using ":q!" (without the quotes).</p>
8946d964 400 </div>
15bb726f 401 <p>&nbsp;</p>
8946d964 402</div>
f79310ed 403
5dbae356 404<h3 class="sectionheading" id="course">7. Create a new course</h3>
8946d964 405<div class="indent">
15bb726f 406 <p>Now that Moodle is running properly, you can try creating a new course to play with. </p>
407 <p>Select &quot;Create a new course&quot; from the Admin page (or the admin
408 links on the home page).</p>
409 <p>Fill out the form, paying special attention to the course format. You don't
410 have to worry about the details too much at this stage, as everything can
411 be changed later by the teacher. Note that the yellow help icons are everywhere to provide contextual help on any aspect. </p>
412 <p>Press &quot;Save changes&quot;, and you will be taken to a new form where
413 you can assign teachers to the course. You can only add existing user accounts
414 from this form - if you want to create a new teacher account then either ask
415 the teacher to create one for themselves (see the login page), or create one
416 for them using the &quot;Add a new user&quot; on the Admin page.</p>
417 <p>Once done, the course is ready to customise, and is accessible via the &quot;Courses&quot;
418 link on the home page.</p>
bfb2734e 419 <p>See the &quot;<a href="">Teacher Documentation</a>&quot; for more details
15bb726f 420 on course-building.</p>
421 <p>&nbsp;</p>
5dbae356 422 <p class="center"><strong>Happy exploring and happy Moodling!</strong></p>
423 <p class="center"><strong>If you like Moodle, please consider <a href="">donating</a> to help us cover our costs! </strong></p>
8946d964 424</div>