course-reports MDL-24173 Course reports now use the report page layout + minor tweaks...
[moodle.git] / local / readme.txt
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17da2e6f 1// This file is part of Moodle - http://moodle.org/
2//
3// Moodle is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
4// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
5// the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
6// (at your option) any later version.
7//
8// Moodle is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
9// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
10// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
11// GNU General Public License for more details.
12//
13// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
14// along with Moodle. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
15
16/**
17 * Readme file for local customisations
18 *
19 * @package local
20 * @copyright 2009 Petr Skoda (http://skodak.org)
21 * @license http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html GNU GPL v3 or later
22 */
23
24Local customisations directory
25==============================
6f5e0852 26This directory is the recommended place for local customisations.
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27Wherever possible, customisations should be written using one
28of the standard plug-in points like modules, blocks, auth plugins, themes, etc.
17da2e6f 29
30See also http://docs.moodle.org/en/Development:Local_customisation for more
31information.
32
33
34Directory structure
35-------------------
36This directory has standard plugin structure. All standard plugin features
37are supported. There may be some extra files with special meaning in /local/.
38
39Sample /local/ directory listing:
40/local/nicehack/ - first customisation plugin
41/local/otherhack/ - other customisation plugin
42/local/upgrade_pre20.php - one time upgrade and migration script which is
72b4b0ef 43 executed before main 2.0 upgrade starts
17da2e6f 44/local/defaults.php - custom admin setting defaults
45
46
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47
48Local plugins
54f88b07 49=============
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50Local plugins are used in cases when no standard plugin fits, examples are:
51* event consumers communicating with external systems
52* custom definitions of web services and external functions
53* applications that extend moodle at the system level (hub server, amos server, etc.)
54* new database tables used in core hacks (discouraged)
55* new capability definitions used in core hacks
56* custom admin settings
57
aaff9f7f 58Standard plugin features:
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59* /local/pluginname/db/version.php - version of script (must be incremented after changes)
60* /local/pluginname/db/install.xml - executed during install (new version.php found)
61* /local/pluginname/db/install.php - executed right after install.xml
62* /local/pluginname/db/uninstall.php - executed during uninstallation
63* /local/pluginname/db/upgrade.php - executed after version.php change
64* /local/pluginname/db/access.php - definition of capabilities
65* /local/pluginname/db/events.php - event handlers and subscripts
66* /local/pluginname/db/messages.php - messaging registration
67* /local/pluginname/db/services.php - definition of web services and web service functions
68* /local/pluginname/lang/en/local_pluginname.php - language file
69* /local/pluginname/settings.php - admin settings
aaff9f7f 70
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71
72Local plugin version specification
54f88b07 73----------------------------------
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74version.php is mandatory for most of the standard plugin infrastructure.
75The version number must be incremented most plugin changes, the changed
76version tells Moodle to invalidate all caches, do db upgrades if necessary,
77install new capabilities, register event handlers, etc.
78
79Example:
80/local/nicehack/version.php
81<?php
82$plugin->version = 2010022400; // The (date) version of this plugin
83$plugin->requires = 2010021900; // Requires this Moodle version
84
85
86Local plugin capabilities
54f88b07 87-------------------------
72b4b0ef 88Each local plugin may define own capabilities. It is not recommended to define
17da2e6f 89capabilities belonging to other plugins here, but it should work too.
90
91/local/nicehack/access.php content
92<?php
93$local_nicehack_capabilities = array(
94 'local/nicehack:nicecapability' => array(
95 'captype' => 'read',
96 'contextlevel' => CONTEXT_SYSTEM,
97 ),
98);
17da2e6f 99
100
72b4b0ef 101Local plugin language strings
54f88b07 102-----------------------------
17da2e6f 103If customisation needs new strings it is recommended to use normal plugin
104strings.
105
3a915b06 106sample language file /local/nicehack/lang/en/local_nicehack.php
17da2e6f 107<?php
72b4b0ef 108$string['hello'] = 'Hi {$a}';
17da2e6f 109$string['nicehack:nicecapability'] = 'Some capability';
17da2e6f 110
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111
112use of the new string in code:
17da2e6f 113echo get_string('hello', 'local_nicehack', 'petr');
114
115
72b4b0ef 116Local plugin admin menu items
54f88b07 117-----------------------------
17da2e6f 118It is possible to add new items and categories to the admin_tree block.
119I you need to define new admin setting classes put them into separate
120file and require_once() from settings.php
121
122For example if you want to add new external page use following
123/local/nicehack/settings.php
124<?php
125$ADMIN->add('root', new admin_category('tweaks', 'Custom tweaks'));
126$ADMIN->add('tweaks', new admin_externalpage('nicehackery', 'Tweak something',
127 $CFG->wwwroot.'/local/nicehack/setuppage.php'));
17da2e6f 128
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129Or if you want a new standard settings page for the plugin, inside a new
130category at the top level called 'Local hacks', use the following:
131<?php
132defined('MOODLE_INTERNAL') || die;
133
134if (!$ADMIN->locate('localhacks')) {
135 $ADMIN->add('root', new admin_category('localhacks', 'Local hacks'));
136}
137$settings = new admin_settingpage('local_pluginname', 'This plugin');
138$ADMIN->add('localhacks', $settings);
139
140$settings->add(new admin_setting_configtext('local_thisplugin/option',
141 'Option', 'Information about this option', 100, PARAM_INT));
17da2e6f 142
72b4b0ef 143Local plugin event handlers
54f88b07 144---------------------------
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145Events are intended primarily for communication "core --> plugins".
146(It should not be use in opposite direction!)
147In theory it could be also used for "plugin --> plugin" communication too.
148The list of core events is documented in lib/db/events.php
17da2e6f 149
150sample files
151/local/nicehack/db/events.php
152$handlers = array (
153 'user_deleted' => array (
154 'handlerfile' => '/local/nicehack/lib.php',
6f5e0852 155 'handlerfunction' => 'nicehack_userdeleted_handler',
17da2e6f 156 'schedule' => 'instant'
157 ),
158);
159
72b4b0ef 160NOTE: events are not yet fully implemented in current Moodle 2.0dev.
17da2e6f 161
162
72b4b0ef 163Local plugin database tables
54f88b07 164----------------------------
17da2e6f 165XMLDB editors is the recommended tool. Please note that modification
166of core table structure is highly discouraged.
167
168If you really really really need to modify core tables you might want to do
169that in install.php and later upgrade.php
170
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171Note: it is forbidden to manually modify the DB structure, without corresponding
172 changes in install.xml files.
173
17da2e6f 174List of upgrade related files:
175/local/nicehack/db/install.xml - contains XML definition of new tables
176/local/nicehack/db/install.php - executed after db creation, may be also used
177 for general install code
178/local/nicehack/db/upgrade.php - executed when version changes
17da2e6f 179
180
08509f0a 181Local plugin web services
182-------------------------
183During plugin installation or upgrade, the web service definitions are read
184from /local/nicehack/db/services.php and are automatically installed/updated in Moodle.
185
186sample files
187/local/nicehack/db/services.php
188$$functions = array (
189 'nicehack_hello_world' => array(
190 'classname' => 'local_nicehack_external',
191 'methodname' => 'hello_world',
192 'classpath' => 'local/nicehack/externallib.php',
193 'description' => 'Get hello world string',
194 'type' => 'read',
195 ),
196);
197$services = array(
198 'Nice hack service 1' => array(
199 'functions' => array ('nicehack_hello_world'),
200 'enabled'=>1,
201 ),
202);
203
204
205You will need to write the /local/nicehack/externallib.php - external functions
206description and code. See some examples from the core files (/user/externallib.php,
207/group/externallib.php...).
208
c6eb9bc6 209
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210Other local customisation files
211===============================
c6eb9bc6 212
17da2e6f 213Customised site defaults
214------------------------
215Different default site settings can be stored in file /local/defaults.php.
216These new defaults are used during installation, upgrade and later are
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217displayed as default values in admin settings. This means that the content
218of the defaults files is usually updated BEFORE installation or upgrade.
219
220These customised defaults are useful especially when using CLI tools
221for installation and upgrade.
17da2e6f 222
223Sample /local/defaults.php file content:
224<?php
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225$defaults['moodle']['forcelogin'] = 1; // new default for $CFG->forcelogin
226$defaults['scorm']['maxgrade'] = 20; // default for get_config('scorm', 'maxgrade')
17da2e6f 227$defaults['moodlecourse']['numsections'] = 11;
72b4b0ef 228$defaults['moodle']['hiddenuserfields'] = array('city', 'country');
17da2e6f 229
230First bracket contains string from column plugin of config_plugins table.
231Second bracket is the name of setting. In the admin settings UI the plugin and
232name of setting is separated by "|".
233
72b4b0ef 234The values usually correspond to the raw string in config table, with the exception
54f88b07 235of comma separated lists that are usually entered as real arrays.
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236
237Please note that not all settings are converted to admin_tree,
238they are mostly intended to be set directly in config.php.
17da2e6f 239
240
72b4b0ef 2412.0 pre-upgrade script
54f88b07 242----------------------
17da2e6f 243You an use /local/upgrade_pre20.php script for any code that needs to
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244be executed before the main upgrade to 2.0. Most probably this will
245be used for undoing of old hacks that would otherwise break normal
2462.0 upgrade.
17da2e6f 247
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248This file is just included directly, there does not need to be any
249function inside. If the execution stops the script is executed again
250during the next upgrade. The first execution of lib/db/upgrade.php
251increments the version number and the pre upgrade script is not
252executed any more.
253
17da2e6f 254
255
43266b40 2561.9.x upgrade notes
54f88b07 257===================
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2581.9.x contains basic support for local hacks placed directly into
259/local/ directory. This old local API was completely removed and can
260not be used any more in 2.0. All old customisations need to be
261migrated to new local plugins before running of the 2.0 upgrade script.
262
263
264
72b4b0ef 265Other site customisation outside of "/local/" directory
54f88b07 266=======================================================
17da2e6f 267
268Local language pack modifications
269---------------------------------
270Moodle supports other type of local customisation of standard language
271packs. If you want to create your own language pack based on another
272language create new dataroot directory with "_local" suffix, for example
273following file with content changes string "Login" to "Sign in":
3a915b06 274moodledata/lang/en_local
17da2e6f 275<?php
276 $string['login'] = 'Sign in';
17da2e6f 277
278See also http://docs.moodle.org/en/Language_editing
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279
280
281Custom script injection
54f88b07 282-----------------------
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283Very old customisation option that allows you to modify scripts by injecting
284code right after the require 'config.php' call.
285
286This setting is enabled by manually setting $CFG->customscripts variable
287in config.php script. The value is expected to be full path to directory
288with the same structure as dirroot. Please note this hack only affects
289files that actually include the config.php!
290
291Examples:
292* disable one specific moodle page without code modification
54f88b07 293* alter page parameters on the fly